This page comes with no warranty. The visitor may find the signs of sexual abuse in self or others, suffer mental and emotional harm, lose health and self-control, and hurt or kill self or others. Incidentally, reckless disclosure of the page content may result in civil and criminal penalties. In view of the potential consequences, the visitor shall defend, indemnify, and hold harmless the author, the publisher, and their agents against all claims, expenses, losses, and lawsuits that may arise from this visit. Leave now or continue at your risk. Prerequisite: Signs of Incest.



The standard statistical study

Statistics have been used for a long time to obtain an understanding of a phenomenon. Statistical data are normally obtained from a meaningful sample with clearly identifiable characteristics. The sample has to be representative of the overall population and has to be sufficiently large to produce a small margin of error. The sampling criteria need to be clearly defined and applied consistently. These sampling requirements are best satisfied with inanimate objects. For example, in a study of the types of vehicles on the road, researchers take samples on every interstate in the USA, combine the results, and analyze them for the relative number of motorcycles, cars, pick-up trucks, and trucks. In this case, the categories are clearly distinguishable; the statistical methods can be applied consistently, and the samples can be selected reasonably to get a valid reflection of reality. But such a method does not work when applied to subjective criteria.

The subjective study

Imagine that the goal is to evaluate how many women in the country are beautiful, how many are average-looking, and how many are ugly. To make the study meaningful, 10 levels of beauty will be considered, from 1 to 10. A group of 1000 judges will be sent throughout the country to contact the targeted populations so that the "national index of feminine beauty" can be calculated. The study will unavoidably produce bogus results, because every researcher will use his or her subjective sense of beauty.

Statistical researchers of human subjects have been experiencing these subjective influences in countless studies. When the results only depend on the researchers, training can help limit the number of inaccurate results. When the results also depend on the subjects, very unpredictable responses are obtained. For example, a questionnaire about shopping habits may seem like a straightforward matter, but the subjective opinions of the subjects may produce consistently skewed results. For example, in order to "keep up with the Joneses" the subjects may always say that they shop in more elegant stores and that they spend more money on birthday presents and that they buy a more expensive car, etc. than they really do. In many of these cases, the subjects may believe that they are telling the truth when they are not.

Studies of sexual abuse
Sexual abuse is the most sensitive topic for discussion. Neither physical mutilation, nor murder, nor genocide, nor war can evoke as strong emotions, denial, shame, and dissociation as child sexual abuse can. Judges routinely ban reporters from disclosing that a child was raped, sodomized, sexually abused, or molested, but the same judges do not object to reports about murder, mutilation, kidnapping, or enslavement. The judges apparently cannot handle the topic of child rape, and the average citizens are not doing any better. Because of these facts, all questionnaires that have ever been given to the general population produced extremely skewed results. In many cases, the field personnel were unable to evaluate the answers of the questioned subjects because the methods of measurement allowed only three answers: yes, no, and don't know. No room was allowed for the evaluation of the emotional reactions of the subjects, silence, uncertainty, or the possibility that the subjects might be unable to remember their abuse. Giving such "black or white" questionnaires is nothing but an exercise in futility. A new, qualitatively different approach has to be taken to obtain the real prevalence of child sexual abuse.


The Author's discovery of the visible effects of sexual abuse allows researchers to overcome the flaws of the previous methods. The adopted multidisciplinary approach combines physical evidence, visible hormonal changes, genetic changes, illnesses, values, psychological manifestations, and behavioral traits. These categories and their individual indicators are based on quantitative and qualitative evaluation of numerous incest victims. The results not only lead to statistically meaningful numbers, but they also confirm that the claimed visible signs of incest are truly caused by sexual abuse in childhood. Such a comprehensive approach is the only way to detect the existence of a phenomenon that has no guaranteed outcome.


LIPs speak loudly and clearly. Fewer than 5% of LIPs (between the ages of 8 and 10 years) seem inconclusive and cannot be attributed to abuse. The Author conducted a study of several hundred American and a few German children between the ages of 3 and 12 years found randomly on the internet. Half of all the subjects could not be evaluated; they did not open their mouths. The poor resolution of the images instantly eliminated most submillimeter gaps, and all other inconclusive samples were also rejected. Consequently, the obtained statistics are very conservative. Roughly 70% of the evaluated subjects were between 8 and 10 years old and had permanent teeth.

The flaws of this study are: small sample size, no small gaps, and closed mouths. The closed mouths are particularly detrimental to the accuracy of the results. Children and adults with big dental gaps are known to hide their teeth, and this is exactly what was found in this study. Very few of the evaluated subjects had big gaps. In contrast, casual observations of children reveal that big gaps are much more common than found in this study. Based on casual observations, big gaps seem 2 or 3 times more common among blacks than among whites. Interestingly, Yen Le from UCLA claims that 1 in 5 black men [in the USA] has diastema [5]. This is about the same prevalence as among non-Catholic bishops, and almost twice the national average, as established in the study. Also black American women do have many and often big diastemas, as the world has seen during the Katrina disaster. But one should keep in mind that perfect teeth cannot be considered indicative of no abuse. There is more than one way to abuse a child sexually.

Because of the above mentioned problems, only 29% of girls and 30% of boys had detectable LIPs. The interesting outcome of this poor study is that both genders had essentially identical prevalence of LIPs.
The actual prevalence of diastema has been evaluated in various studies around the world and involved thousands of subjects. A large study in India only found 1.6% incidence of “true” maxillary midline diastema, and 0.3% incidence of “true” mandibular diastema [3]. Low prevalence of diastema is found throughout southeastern Asia, even though there are big regional differences. Southern India, Karnataka state, has midline diastema prevalence of 15.43% among subjects between 13 and 17 years [13]. Taiwan has 64.6% diastema prevalence among 6-year-olds, and 14.3% among 12-year-olds [14]. Saudi Arabia shows 23% diastema prevalence in subjects between 13 and 40 years [15]. Turkish children have 7.0% midline diastema prevalence between the ages of 12 and 17 [16]. US researchers report that diastema prevalence in adult samples varies between 1.6% and 25.4% [17].
A large study of 12-year-old children in South Africa found 16.66% incidence of maxillary midline diastema [2]. A sizable study in Kenya showed that 35% of children (mean age 7.6 years) had both mandibular and maxillary diastemas [4]. Another study in Kenya identified that 61.3% of Maasai had diastema [7]. A very informative longitudinal study by the dental faculty at the University of Toronto found that 48.8% of 9-year-old children had diastema [1]. Similarly, statistics of the American Association of Orthodontists show that 50% of 9-year-olds have midline diastemas, most of which fall between 1 and 2 mm [8]. Also the Author's sample indicates that an overwhelming number of diastemas fall between 1 and 2 mm. And Japanese scientists identified that eruption of canines usually leads to diastema closure [6]. In agreement with this discovery, the Author's data show significant reduction in diastema prevalence with age. The prevalence was found to be 30% among American girls between 8 and 12 years of age, and 26% among American boys of the same age. In contrast, just 13% of 15-year-old girls and just 11% of 15-year-old boys had diastema. Only 8% of girls between 16 and 20 years of age still had diastema. No data are available for boys of this age group.

similar trend in the reduction of diastema prevalence was found in a large Russian study performed by the dental faculty in the city of Stavropol. The scientists found that the prevalence of diastema peaked at 46.90% at the age of 6 years, but only 12.93% of 14-year-old children had diastema [9]. Unfortunately, no information exists about the nature and origin of the diastemas, or other effects of sexual abuse the children may have had. The children were evaluated just for diastema, not for incest. So, the statistics need to be considered carefully. The milk teeth of 6-year-olds are notoriously unpredictable and cannot be fully described by means of numbers. The overall appearance of the jaws as well as additional signs of incest have to be taken into account when deciding whether a diastema has a natural origin or is caused by oral rape. The Author's studies reveal that children with LIPs have a whole set of secondary effects of sexual abuse. These secondary indicators are much more common and also much more pronounced in this population than among people without LIPs. This fact confirms the validity of LIP as a direct consequence of child rape, and also ties the secondary effects to extreme child abuse, most often of sexual nature, but not exclusively.

Figure 1 below shows the dramatic changes in the frequency of LIPs versus age. The gray segments of the curve correspond to periods when LIPs are not visible because of missing teeth. The blue segments indicate the visible periods. The permanent front teeth begin occurring by the eighth year. At first the central incisors, then the lateral incisors, and the process culminates at about 12 years of age with the occurrence of canine teeth. This is the time when LIPs usually close. The graph is normalized for the North American population. The mild peaking at 6 years of age has been chosen arbitrarily.

Frequency of diastema versus age

The general notion among skin specialists is that an average person has up to 20 moles. This may be true in adulthood. Moles among children are less common, but those kids who have moles have suffered repetitive episodes of severe traumas. About one-third of all 10-year-old Americans seems to have some facial moles, most often brown spots. The highest extent of moles can probably be found in Southeast Asia, Japan, China, and Philippines. Well over one-third of these populations seems to have major facial moles that protrude beyond the surrounding skin. Moles are generally found among people who live under constant stress. They are swimmers, gymnasts, figure skaters, tennis players, gamblers, and other competing characters.

Freckles occur in similar ways as moles do. In a few weeks or months, freckles can cover a significant part of the child's body and face. If freckles do occur in an abused child, they usually appear before the sixth year. The occurrence of freckles often indicates a compromised immune system. Significant numbers of freckles are found in about 5 to 10% of the general white population of Europe and North America.

Hairy glabella
Hair between the eyes or very large brows are uncommon in the USA or Europe. Perhaps only between 1 and 3 % of American children have these symptoms. In other parts of the world, especially in the Middle East and parts of Central Asia, hairy glabella occurs often. More than 10% of those populations seem to have hairy glabellas or some other uncommon facial hair. The prevalence of moles is high as well.

Genetic changes
Visible genetic changes in the face may not be obvious because we do not really know what is normal and what is not. We have accepted that people come in all shapes and sizes. Clear indicators of genetic mutations can be seen in about 10% of all children, and there is no difference between boys and girls in the incidence of genetic changes.

Major childhood illnesses that are caused by sexual abuse show in only about 5% of all children. But these are not just any illnesses; they are deadly. The existing statistical data (both quantitative and qualitative) persuasively indicate that incest is what causes cancer. According to the Author's statistics, children with leukemia have 33% incidence of LIPs. The percentage is only slightly above the average, but children with leukemia often have additional symptoms: moles (often at the submandibular gland), obesity, freckles, and severe psychological problems. Neuroblastoma is much more indicative of child sexual abuse. A random sample of children with neuroblastoma had 56% incidence of LIPs, and the LIPs were by far the biggest among all the researched cancer patients. The big LIPs indicate abuse that started at a very young age. Only one other group, white children given up for adoption (who are the most likely to be adopted because of their race, but whom no one wants because of their previous abuse and insurmountable mental and behavioral problems) had a comparable (55%) incidence of LIPs. Remarkably, the most prominent cancer researchers also have a high incidence of sizable LIPs.

Evidence further suggests that incest leads to different illnesses in different races. Sexually abused blacks are much more likely than whites to develop sickle cell anemia, and sexually abused whites are much more likely than blacks to develop leukemia.

As people age, the cumulative long-term effects of sexual abuse cause much higher incidence of illnesses. Especially Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases strongly depend on age, as do some forms of cancer, such as uterine and prostate cancers. The change of hair color is also age-dependent. Only rarely, white hair can be found among adolescents. Baldness is also age-dependent. In rare cases, people may become bald before the age of 20. Perhaps 1 in 5 adult American males is bald. They are people who live under a lot of stress: CEOs, judges, and doctors. They have chosen their professions because of childhood sexual abuse. This explains why judges cannot handle disclosures of sexual abuse by the press, and why they protect rapists. Also small height strongly correlates with incest, but only about 10% of boys and girls are of noticeably small stature.

Substance abuse
Heavy alcohol users represents 5.7% of the US population [10].
Illicit drug users represent 7.1% of the US population [10].
Tobacco users represent 29.5% of the total US population [10].
In the USA, there are 25.0% of women and 19.5% of men who are obese [11].

The Author's study suggests that an overwhelming number of suicides is committed by people with LIPs. The ratio of suicides in the population with LIPs versus the population without LIPs could be at least 10:1, and perhaps as high as 30:1. Large controlled studies are needed to verify the findings.

The development of multiple personality disorder seems to be caused by childhood sexual abuse in more than 95% of all cases of this disorder. The Author's experience suggests that at least two-thirds of all people have some degree of MPD. This is a conservative estimate. See the page on MPD for more information.

Cause of death
The five leading causes of death among Americans are listed below [12].


Diseases of the heart
Malignant neoplasms
Cerebrovascular diseases











The data mean that about two-thirds of all deaths are due to five major causes. Every single one is associated with childhood sexual abuse. The Author's observations suggest that heart diseases develop predominantly in people with the indicators of incest. Various forms of cancer are often caused by incest, and accidents are not purely accidental. Dissociation, risk taking, and fatalism are significant contributors to accidental deaths among Hispanics. Also diabetes, obesity, and cerebrovascular diseases go hand in hand with incest. Overall, child sexual abuse and its consequences are the ultimate force in the human universe. No other factor affects the human race more profoundly. Incest is directly responsible for at least 75 percent of all illnesses and causes of death. If incestuously produced psychopathy is included, then sexual abuse of children is the cause of more than 95 percent of all health problems and deaths. This psychopathy will ultimately lead to the demise of humanity.


The impact of incest on an individual is presented on the page "Sexual Abuse Signs." The social effects are equally disturbing. Without further justification, here is a list of the usual social consequences of sexual abuse.

Behaviors of individuals
Acting out, fraud, theft, robbery, battery, mutilation, rape, murder
Smoking, drug use, gambling, exhibitionism, promiscuity, orgies, and other addictions
Vanity, consumerism, struggle for monetary gain, and social climbing
Indifference toward crimes and unwillingness to punish criminals

Behaviors of organizations
Mafia, street gangs, motorcycle gangs, political parties
Legal firms, fraudulent businesses, and government contractors
Bribery, extortion, smuggling, black-marketing, prostitution, pornography
Car races, air shows, boxing matches, animal fights

The entire advertising industry relies on the consequences of sexual abuse and dissociation. A person who employs her whole mind buys wisely, but a dissociated person is at the mercy of her impulses and external pressures. The victim is prone to succumb to slogans, such as:
Buy more and save! Buy now and save! No payment! (until July 2999).
And there are usually American flags on display, and references to God and patriotism:
Buy American!

After September 11, 2001, dissociated patriots bought American flags by the dozens. A similar surge in nationalism was seen in Germany after the Great Economic Depression in the 1930's. This is how the Nazi party managed to gain power. An opportunist (Adolf Hitler) led the miserable dissociated incest victims of Germany to dominate the world and to die for his glory.

Behaviors of countries
Toxic pollution, health-related crimes, economic crimes, abuse of political power
War, genocide, slavery, military aggression and intimidation
Political, military, and financial support of our enemies
Failure to defend the national integrity (land and population)
Legal and illegal immigration despite clear signs of overpopulation

Dissociative stupidity
Loss of emotional intelligence because of dissociation is the most widespread consequence of incest. The problem with this indicator is in its frequent occurrence. If everyone behaves the same way, then such a behavior is not considered abnormal. How can a therapist tell that the patient has some strange mentality when the therapist thinks and behaves the same way? It cannot be done. Conservative estimates indicate that some form of dissociative stupidity affects at least 99% of the general American population. (Americans come from all over the world.) The most typical areas of dissociative stupidity include the following:

Values show in consumerism. Big cars, big houses, big boats. Fast pace of life and struggle for growth and performance. Speeding all the time, even when the speed limit is 200 mph. Careless attitude toward the future. Dissociated incest victims act like there is no tomorrow. Roughly 95% of Americans behave this way.

Personal wealth is more valued than health. Having a "fun time" is more important than staying alive. Killing Saddam is more important than protecting American borders. Destroying ANWR is more important than improving gas mileage of cars. Buying a $40,000 car is more important than getting college education. At least two-thirds of Americans seem to have problems correctly setting the most basic priorities.

Misdirected anger
Road rage, school killings, joy killings, wars, and general aggression are the usual manifestations of misdirected anger. Here also belong frivolous lawsuits and the feeling that somebody else has to pay every time I suffer damage or harm, even when caused by my stupidity. Misdirected anger seems to affect three-quarters of the general population.

Self-destructive behavior

Risk taking in more than 10% of the general population
Multiplication beyond the earth's carrying capacity > 70% of the population
Environmental destruction > 90% of Americans
Promiscuous lifestyle > 70% of the US population

Continuation of the abuser-victim bond in social life
In various forms, about 90% of the population have this problem. They let themselves be abused by a perceived father figure and see nothing wrong with it. The entire social culture is steered in this direction, and stereotypical beliefs are promoted. Judges are honorable; criminals wear dirty clothes; blacks are bad; sheriffs, preachers, and doctors are to be revered and trusted; belief in God makes people righteous, etc. The facts are sobering:
  • Police and sheriffs commit murder
  • Border guard agents commit rape and murder
  • Coast guard agents smuggle drugs and commit murder
  • Police shoot people at will
  • Judges rape women and defend rapists
  • Preachers rape children
  • Legislators protect rapists and punish their victims
  • Judges hang innocent people and protect criminals
  • Presidents abuse children or commit mass murder
  • Congressmen take money from corporate organized crime
  • Dentists and doctors rape patients
  • Teachers, coaches, and camp counselors rape children
Behavioral inconsistency
Protection of children while mutilating their genitals > 90% of US families
Protection of children while killing them through overpopulation > 70% of US families
Protection of women against rape while forcing them to become pregnant by their rapists > 70%
Fighting terrorism by terrorizing others and forcing them into terrorism > 70%
Fighting enemies by assisting them in their military and economic growth > 70%
Serving The People while robbing them left and right ~ 100% of state and federal officials

Belief in the supernatural
About 90% of the world population in some form believe in the supernatural. The particular forms are: wishful and magical thinking, organized religion, psychic powers, witchcraft, Satan worship, etc. In the Author's opinion, an adult person cannot believe in the supernatural without dissociating and losing his or her most advanced mental abilities. Child sexual abuse seems to be behind all such dissociation.

Strong correlation exists between religiosity and fear of sex, and between religiosity and sexual abuse. Fear of nudity often reaches the level of paranoia in Islamic countries and the American Bible Belt, and these regions also have high incidence of misdirected anger. Statistical evidence further suggests that religious people lead a double life. They preach love for children and at the same time rape them, or assist in their abuse, or are indifferent to their abuse. This can be seen in the character of the Catholic church in America, but also in Ireland, where the church was an institution of physical and sexual slavery. Similarly, the British rulers kidnapped poor English children and sent them to Australia in the second half of the 20th century. The children were owned by the church and were used for labor and sex. The connection between child rape and religiosity is also seen in American history. The religious Bible Belt has been a place with "good Christian values." Extermination of the American Indian was one of them. The righteous masters could not stand "niggers" either, but they loved to import and enslave African blacks, rape black women and children, and lynch black men. And the current eagerness of Bible Belt and Redneck Belt politicians to kill and dominate the Arabs suggests that incest is alive and well in the USA. Misdirected anger has not vanished from the lives of religious and other sexually abused Americans; the anger has only been redirected against new victims.

It is important to keep in mind that religion does not cause incest, but is one of many consequences of sexual abuse and with it associated psychopathology. The more a person dissociates from her abuse, the more religious she tends to become, and the more likely she is to abuse others. Citizens with this mindset represent the majority of the US population and make darn sure that they install people like themselves (dissociated, religious, and domineering) in public office. The impact of this "natural selection" is being felt throughout the American society and the world.


The lack of a common indicator among victims of child sexual abuse makes any statistical evaluation difficult, and the true prevalence of sexual abuse cannot be objectively assessed by means of indisputable visible evidence. Instead, the evaluation has to use indirect techniques. Because most consequences are psychological, only an expert is able to interpret the signs he or she sees in an individual, and apply them to the whole population. Most readers will be unable to make this assessment due to their previous abuse and dissociation. They are likely to be suspicious of any discovery of sexual abuse and may reject the here presented statistics.

The assessment of incest typically evokes a strong defensive response and leads to rejection of the unbelievable. On top of his or her inadequate knowledge, the evaluator dissociates from the unpleasant topic. The trauma subconsciously reminds him or her of one's own childhood sexual abuse, and disbelief is a predictable outcome.

So, how widespread is child sexual abuse? If we accept that about 50% of American children have LIPs, and if we consider that an average American family has two children, then the impression is that every American family could be incestuous. If we further consider that child rape is not an accident but a reflection of a person's values and lifestyle, then it is hard to imagine that only one child in a family would be brutally raped in infancy, and all other children would be left unharmed. It is equally hard to accept that a rapist would abuse his victim only in her infancy, but would not touch her in later years, when she develops full body and becomes sexually desirable. This reasoning suggests that the prevalence of intrafamilial incest is high, and the abuse goes on for many years.

The prevalence of sexual abuse can also be deduced from the severity of MPD (see the MPD page for details). According to the Author's statistics, at least one-third of the total American population has strong signs of multiple personality disorder, and was apparently abused severely and repeatedly. The abuse probably included rape by one or more people, and sometimes physical and mental torture, in addition to the trauma of the rape.

The mild manifestations of multiple personality disorder in one-third of the population suggest that the victims were abused significantly, but less than the most traumatized third was. The abuse could have included rape and various forms of physical penetration. The exact degree of violation is difficult to estimate because of differential reactions to abuse.

One-third of the US population shows no obvious signs of multiple personality disorder, yet most subjects in this group have symptoms that have been statistically associated with child sexual abuse. The signs are mainly psychological, but at least one-half of the MPD-free population also has hormonal, genetic, physical, or morbid indicators that suggest previous sexual traumatization.

Fewer than 10% of the total American population show no clear signs of MPD. In the Author's experience, this means that the subjects were abused so severely that they completely dissociated from their traumas at the cognitive, emotional, and somatic levels, or they were not abused at all. But, as the Author claims, he knows no person who has no indicators of sexual abuse. He claims that he can recognize these signs in every person he knows well. The validation of his claim can be obtained by profiling whole families, rather than individuals. Additional validation can come from comparative studies of the lifestyles of the subjects in question with the lifestyles of the most severely affected known incest victims. Such studies indicate that every extended family has at least one person with unmistakable indicators of sexual abuse, and this means that every American family is incestuous.

How many individuals in an extended family are abused sexually is debatable, but the following overview hints at the answer.

Hairy glabella
Genetic changes
Key illness in childhood
Alcohol abuse
Drug use
Tobacco use
CSA-related deaths (directly)
All deaths, including bad behaviors
Dissociative stupidity

> 60%
> 99%

Naturally, there are overlaps, and the estimated percentages do not simply add up. On the other hand, many indicators have not been considered, such as criminal history, sacrificial attitude, or social climbing. But even this brief summary suggests that a non-abused child is a rarity.

Interestingly, a LIP is not the most revealing sign of incest. The #1 indicator is dissociative stupidity, that is loss of emotional intelligence. A child growing up in a healthy environment should have normal and fully developed emotional intelligence. If this is not the case, some major neuropsychological interference must have affected normal acquisition of intelligence. In western industrialized societies, the only factor that has such an ability is severe child abuse.


1] Thompson, G. W. & Popovich, F. A longitudinal Evaluation of the Burlington Growth Centre Data. Retrieved January 12, 2005 from

[2] Drummond, R. J. (2003). Title page for ETD etd-10102003-165609. University of Pretoria: Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Retrieved January 12, 2005 from http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-10102003-165609

[3] Nainar, S. M. Gnanasundaram, N. Incidence and etiology of midline diastema in a population in south India (Madras) [Electronic version]. Angle Orthod., 59(4):277–82 (Winter, 1989).

4] Kaimenyi, J. T. Occurrence of midline diastema and frenum attachment among school children in Nairobi, Kenya. [Electronic version], Indian J. Dent. Res., 9(2(:67–71 (Apr.-Jun., 1998).

[5] Le, Y. (1999). Orthodontics 4/30/99 First half. Transverse Problems. Retrieved January 11, 2005 from http://www.dent.ucla.edu/2001/ortho3.htm

[6] Yamaoka, M., Furusawa, K., Tanaka, M. & Tanaka, H. Unerupted canine without median diastema [Electronic version]. Abstract. The Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Vol. 24, Issue 6, Page 454, (June, 1997).

[7] The Royal Mummies. Retrieved January 11, 2005 from http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Temple/9845/mummies.htm

[8] Orthodontics. Retrieved December 31, 2004 from http://nnd40.med.navy.mil/Gen_Dent/FSBGD/Resident%20Study%20Guide%2000-01/Orthodontics.doc

[9] Lechenie Detey s Diastemoy. Vogolatskiy, M.P., D. Khristoforando& Shumilina, V. A. Kafedra Chelyustno Litsevoy Khirurgii i Stomatologii Detskogo Vozrasta. detstom.narod.ru/stat/stat8.htm

[10] 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.

[11] NIH Publication No 96-4158 July 1996. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/statobes.htm

[12] National Vital Statistics Report. September 16, 2002. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/pdf/nvsr50_16TB2.pdf

[13] H. Kaur, US Pavithra, R Abraham. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population Prevalence of Malocclusion, Year 2013, Volume 3, Issue 2, Page 97-102, electronic version.

[14] Jeng-Fen-Liu, Chia-Ling-Hsu, Hui-Ling-Chen. Prevalence of developmental maxillary midline diastema in Taiwanese children. Journal of Dental Sciences, March 2013 Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 21-26, electronic version.

[15] Master Luqman, Syed Sadatullah, Mohammad Yunis Saleem, Mohammed Ajmal, Yahya Kariri, Mushabab Jhair. The Prevalence and Etiology of Maxillary Midline Diastema in a Saudi population in Aseer region of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Clinical Dental Science, Vol 2, No 3 (2011)

[16] İbrahim Erhan Gelgör, Ali İhya Karaman, Ertuḡrul Ercan. Prevalence of Malocclusion Among Adolescents In Central Anatolia. Eur J Dent. 2007 Jul; 1(3): 125–131, electronic version.

[17] K. Heetland, and M.M. Tolarova. 1459 Genetic study of maxillary midline diastema. Seq #135 - Epidemiology of Malocclusions and Psychosocial Aspects of Orthodontic Treatment, Toronto, July 3, 2008, electronic version.

More information is accessible from the HOME page.
Unpublished work © 2002-2017 Martin Dak. All rights reserved.